Everything You Need to Know on Enzyme Therapy
Enzyme therapy is a treatment for a wide variety of medical conditions. These include diseases such as Fabry’s disease, Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. However, you need to understand that enzymes do not treat all illnesses, and patients may require more than one type of treatment.
Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is a therapeutic approach to Fabry’s disease. This approach involves using intravenously administered enzyme replacement therapy to treat patients with this X-linked lysosomal storage disorder by providing the missing enzyme.
Treatment is usually initiated at an early stage. It delays the onset of complications and prevents irreversible pathological changes. However, there have been some questions about the effectiveness of ERT in Fabry’s disease, especially kidney complications. Currently, two primary enzyme replacement therapies are available, namely Fabrazyme(r) and agalsidase beta.
Both therapies are used in patients with classic Fabry’s disease. Fabry’s disease is a genetic disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. Without this enzyme, a fatty molecule, globotriaosylceramide, builds up in the cells.
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is an inability to produce enough pancreatic enzymes to aid digestion. EPI can result from several different conditions. The most prevalent cause of EPI in adults is chronic pancreatitis. It occurs when the pancreas has been damaged and is not producing adequate digestive enzymes.
EPI is connected with several symptoms. Some symptoms include a lack of appetite, dry skin, brittle nails, sadness, and dizziness. Other symptoms include stomach pains and a loss of body weight. However, these symptoms are not always present in patients with EPI.
The first step if you feel you or a loved one has EPI is to seek medical treatment. A doctor can diagnose the condition and prescribe the appropriate treatment. The main treatment option for this condition is enzyme therapy.
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS)
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially fatal complication of cancer. It is often seen in patients with significant, rapidly growing solid organ tumors. It can, however, develop in people with hematological malignancies and lymphoma.
An abrupt increase in hyperuricemia and hypocalcemia characterizes TLS. It can lead to kidney failure, heart failure, seizures, and dysrhythmias. The rapid release of intracellular components usually causes these complications into the bloodstream after a malignant cell is killed.
The pathophysiology of TLS is characterized by rapid cell death, the release of large amounts of phosphate and potassium, and the resulting acidosis and crystallization of uric acid. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, and cardiac arrhythmias.
Several medical interventions have been used to facilitate or prevent TLS. One of the most common treatments is the alkalinization of urine, which can be achieved by giving fluids or diuretics. Another treatment is the administration of phosphate-binding agents.
Treatment for acute ischemic stroke
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a common circulatory disorder that causes damage to brain tissue. It can be treated with enzyme therapy.
Acute ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked. The disease results in hypoxic lesions. Treatment aims to minimize the injury and promote recovery. It can be done with various medicines, including thrombolytics, anticoagulants, and anti-inflammatory agents.
Patients must meet specific criteria when considering treatment options for acute ischemic stroke. These criteria include having a stroke, being ranked four to 24 points on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, agreeing to receive examinations and treatments that are appropriate for their situation, and allowing follow-up data to be obtained.
Thrombolytics, such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and alteplase, dissolve the blood clot blocking the artery. Several studies have shown that these drugs can improve the outcome of AIS.
Treatment for fibrosing colonopathy
Fibrosing colonopathy is a proliferative disorder of the colonic submucosa. Symptoms include abdominal pain and obstruction—typical radiographs of the colonic wall show thick, submucosal fibrosis.
Cystic fibrosis has been associated with a high rate of fibrosing colonopathy. However, the pathogenic mechanisms are still unknown. It has been suggested that an overdose of pancreatic enzymes and protease may be the culprit.
During the mid-1990s, several studies were published linking the use of pancreatic enzyme products to fibrosing colonopathy. It was particularly true for patients who had received high doses of the product. In the 1990s, more than 60 cases were known to have occurred, many of which did not require surgery.